Among the psychologists of the 20th century, the Austrian doctor Sigmund Freud has a special place. This is explained by the fact that his work changed the face of psychology in the 20th century and clarifies the main issues of the internal world of the individual, his motives and experiences, conflicts between his desires and sense of duty, the causes of mental helplessness and illusory ideas of man about himself and others.
Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856. in the small Moravian town of Freiberg. In 1860, his entire family moved to Vienna, where Sigmund graduated with honors from the famous Leopoldstädter Kommunal-Realgymnasium and entered the University of Vienna.
Freud originally planned to study law, but was admitted to medical school and studied with Darwinist professor Carl Klaus.
In 1874, Freud supervised the German physiologist Ernst Brucke and was influenced by his ideas. Brucke collaborated with physicist Hermann von Helmholtz, one of the formulaters of the First Law of Thermodynamics (Law of Conservation of Energy). According to this law, all living organisms are energy systems. Sigmund Freud accepted this new physiology.
Sigmund Freud, after completing his university education, initially failed to continue his path in science because none of his professors expressed a desire for scientific guidance. So Freud decided to start a private medical practice and internship in public hospitals. In his private practice he accepts people with neurosis and hysteria. He meets Breuer, who has published on the treatment of hysteria through hypnosis. He also met with Charcot, who told him that many of his patients had problems with sexual instinct.
In 1895, in an article published by Freud, the term "libido" was introduced - an activity of the sexual instinct. This led to a scandal that divided Freud's and Breuer's scientific paths.
In the same year, 1895, Sigmund Freud's father died. This led H. Freud to a very severe depression, due to which he withdrew from society. From that moment on, Freud decided to treat his depression on his own. As a result, in 1900. Healed by a theory of the structure of the mental world based on his personal experience and with the book Interpretation of Dreams, Freud returned to the scientific world.
After the First World War, Freud formulated the instinct for death - thanatos, as natural for human nature and most often manifested in military conflicts, as well as self-destruction, when neurotic tension is high and in his desire to reduce pain a person destroys himself. .
In the period 1920-1921, Freud published his theory of id - ego - super ego. There are true elements in his views, but there is also an incorrect absolutization, because he describes It, I and the Superego, examining disorders of health (abnormality).
Freud announced a new therapeutic method, which he called the Method of Free Associations. An additional invention to this method is the famous couch in the psychologist's office. On it the patient is in a semi-recumbent state and the therapist keeps the patient in a constant flow of words through periodic questions. The patient should not control what he says, so as not to push out the symbolic forms that reveal his condition. Such forms are contained in language errors, in repeated forgetfulness, in fantasies, dreams and others. Their analysis can reveal what creates internal tension in the unconscious sphere.
In 1922, Freud contracted palate cancer, which was very painful, and the father of psychoanalysis was forced to take high doses of morphine.
In 1933, during the National Socialist era in Germany, some of Freud's works were burned, and in 1938 Freud emigrated to London after the Gestapo interrogated his daughter.
At the end of his life, Freud described the protective mechanisms by which a person protects himself from the stress that arises or overcomes it. One such mechanism is regression - a return to more elementary behavior or an assessment of the past.
In 1939, Freud died in London from an overdose of morphine taken for his illness.
Today, Freud's personality is legendary, and his work is unanimously recognized as a major contribution to psychology.
For you prepare: psychologist Lyudmila Boyanova
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